Doping and sports - 2013

In Belgium, 1,543 doping controls were conducted in competition, 3.6% of which were positive. The auditors also visited fitness centers, 19.3% of the 150 tests gave positive tests. Stimulants such as amphetamines accounted for 29% of the cases, anabolics and testosterone for 20% and cannabis for 16%. In 17.7% of cases, the test was refused.

In the Netherlands, 2,544 doping controls were performed, in 77 of the 2,046 urine samples one or more doping products were found. Anabolic products occurred 50 times and most of the positive tests came from  strength sports.

In its report, the Australian Crime Commission revealed that the market for performance-enhancing drugs had increased with a record number of seizures, detections and arrests, as well as an increasing number of reports from users.

"In some sports disciplines, illicit drug use is significantly higher than what was recorded in official statistics."

The report also showed a 255% increase in the number of hormones found by customs and a record number of steroids and doping-related arrests.

The British newspaper 'The Guardian' published statistics from the World Anti-Doping Association, which revealed the percentage of positive drug tests from 26 Olympic sports for the period between 2003 and 2010. Over those eight years, cycling had the biggest doping problem, with positive results averaging 3.7 percent, followed by weight lifting at 3.0%, boxing at 2.9%, triathlon at 2.7%, and baseball at 2.5%. Cycling not only showed the highest percentage, but the sport also had a record number of athletes who first denied its use but subsequently confessed it.

A report by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) found that Russia topped the list of 44 suspended athletes, ahead of India with 43 suspended. In terms of sports, in India the local ball sport Kabaddi was at rank one with 58 doping violations, followed by bodybuilding with 51, powerlifting with 42, wrestling with 41, boxing with 36 and judo with 9.

On August 8, twelve Chinese doping cases were announced, on August 20 that number increased to twenty.

In August, the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung published an as yet unpublished study by the University of Berlin on doping use in (West-)Germany since the 1950s. It showed that systematic doping was also used in the Federal Republic with the authorities' knowledge. The three-year study revealed that prohibited performance-enhancing drugs were used on a regular basis and with a comprehensive system in West-German sports, similar to the methods of the GDR. Until 1960, there was amphetamine use, especially among professional football players. Anabolic steroids were administered to minors in the 1970s, but according to some that had been the case since 1949. According to the same study, the German government commissioned in 1988 to investigate the effect of EPO on hockey players and cyclists.

The American newspaper New York Times reported that 29% of 2,000 participants in the 2011 World Cup in Daegu confessed during an anonymous questioning that they had used illicit drugs the year before. 45% said they had doped in 2010, although according to WADA's statistics at the time, only 2% had tested positive.

The Spanish police rounded up two gangs that provided doping on a large scale. 84 suspects were arrested and more than 700,000 boxes of performance-enhancing drugs were seized. The gangs sold anabolic steroids, EPO and growth hormones from China, Greece and Portugal to sports centers and fitness studios. Operación Puerto was completed earlier that year, a major doping scandal involving Spanish physician Eufemiano Fuentes (1955-).

Not only 2006 Tour de France winner Floyd Landis (1975-) was disqualified, but also the second, third, fourth and fifth from that year's ranking. First, the American labeled his suspension for using anabolics as "completely absurd," but three years later he went on to confess and also accused compatriot Lance Armstrong (1971-) of doping abuse. Another three years later, Armstrong confessed to Oprah Winfrey (1954-) that he was using banned substances such as EPO, testosterone and blood transfusions to win the Tour de France seven times between 1999 and 2005.

 Landis also stated:

"Professional cycling is organized crime."

Basketball

Turkish basketball player Hedo Türkoglu (1979-), who played with the Orlando Magics in the NBA, had to watch twenty games from the sidelines as he was caught using methenolone and his salary was not paid during that suspension.

American Marcus Williams (1986-), who played in China, was suspended for six months for his marijuana use.

Baseball

In January, Major League Baseball announced that random hGH testing would begin.

Miguel Tejada (1974-) from the Dominican Republic played for the Kansas City Royals when he was caught using amphetamines twice. It resulted in a 105 game ban for him. Tejada was already mentioned in the Mitchell report in December 2007, he is said to have bought steroids for $ 1,500. In February 2009, he was charged with lying to Congressional hearings about performance-enhancing drug use in Major League Baseball. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to one year's probation.

In the wake of the Biogenesis scandal, Ryan Braun (1983-) of the Milwaukee Brewers was caught using testosterone. It costed him 65 games suspension with a wage loss of $ 3.25 million. Braun's name was mentioned three times in the list that a former clinic employee had passed on to Miami New Times magazine. It turned out that he had bought $ 20,000 to $ 30,000 at the clinic.

That list also included Alex Rodriguez (1975-) who earned an annual salary of $ 28 million with the New York Yankees and who has been mentioned in many doping scandals in the past. He had to watch 211 games from the stands, which was later reduced to 162. In March 2014, it leaked that Rodriguez refused to pay the $ 3 million he owed to his lawyers. For this, a Court sentenced him to a fine of $ 380,000 in July.

Twelve other players linked to the Biogenesis case agreed to a 50-game suspension without the right to appeal: Antonio Bastardo (1985-), Everth Cabrera (1986-), Francisco Cervelli (1986-), Nelson Cruz (1980-), Fautino de los Santos (1986-), Sergio Escalona (1984-), Fernando Martínez (1988-), Jesús Montero (1989-), Jordan Norberto (1986-), Jhonny Peralta (1982-), César Puello (1991-) and Jordany Valdespin (1987-).

For their involvement in the Biogenesis scandal, Melky Cabrera (1984-), Bartolo Colón (1973-) and Yasmani Grandal (1988-) have previously also been suspended for fifty games.

The controversial Coral Gables, Florida, Biogenesis was founded in March 2012 by Anthony Bosch as a beauty clinic specializing in weight loss and hormone replacement therapy. His father Doctor Pedro Bosch was medical director, younger brother and lawyer Ashley Bosch managing member and Porter Fischer marketing director. In the fall of that year several servants left because they were not paid and in December 2012 the clinic closed its doors. In June 2015, Anthony Bosch was sentenced to four years in prison and subsequently had to be supervised for another three years. Because he worked closely on the investigation, explaining all doping cases, he received a penalty reduction of 16 months.

Bobsleigh

Canadian bobsleigh driver Chris Korol (1989-) was suspended for 15 months after a positive test for the new anabolic drug SARM S-22.

Bodybuilding

The Romanian bodybuilders' federation suspended Georgian Josef Gabor and Romanians Ioan Cojocari-Tait, Paul Ritea and Robert Kim for two years due to doping. Romanian Paul Nicolae Catruna (1990-) was even banned for life.

Boxing

After his lost fight against US junior welterweight champion Danny Garcia (1988-), the United States Anti-Doping Agency suspended Mexican former world champion Erik Morales (1976-) for two years for a positive test on multiple banned substances.

British boxer Craig Windsor (1982-) was banned from appearing in the ring for three years and nine months.

Windsor was snitched by British heavyweight Larry Olubamiwu (1978-). He was suspended for four years because of the use of a dozen prohibited substances. Thanks to his close collaboration with researchers from the UK Anti-Doping, he regained his boxing license after 34 months.

Romanian Adrian Poputea (1986-) tested positive for methylhexaneamine, which gave him a six-month suspension.

Cricket

Indian Pradeep Sangwan (1990-) tested positive for stanozolol and had to side for eighteen months.

Cross Country Skiing

Finnish skier Juha Lallukka (1979-) tested positive for hGH, was suspended for two years and immediately lost all medals, points and prizes he had won since 2011.

Curling

The Canadian curling team won the silver medal at the World Cup in Victoria, but the check afterwards showed that Matt Dumontelle (1990-) had tested positive for the anabolic steroid methandienone. The Canadians were allowed to keep the silver medal because Dumontelle was only a reserve and had not participated in any game.

Cycling

In 2013, the Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad revealed that the management of the former Rabobank team had bought the advanced blood machine 'Sysmex XE-2100' in 2007, which allowed riders to avoid positive doping tests. With the "Sysmex XE-2100", Rabobank had the same device as the doping inspectors of the international cycling union UCI. With that device, which registers, among other things, the number of red blood cells and the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, it is possible to determine whether a rider has blood doping.

In a note, team director Theo de Rooij (1957-) reported the purchase of the 75,000 Euro device to sponsor Rabobank. Under the title 'anti-doping', De Rooij motivated the purchase of this analyzer as 'increasing interim internal blood tests'.

The French Senate discussed a report with testimonials from 83 athletes and officials, and subsequently made proposals to strengthen the fight against doping. In addition, she published a list of eighteen riders who had tested positive for EPO during the 1998 Tour, while twelve other riders were suspected.

Tested positive: the Italians Andrea Tafi (1966-), Nicola Minali (1969-), Mario Cipollini (1967-), Fabio Sacchi (1974-), Eddy Mazzoleni (1973-) and Marco Pantani (1970-2004), the Germans Erik Zabel (1970-), Jens Heppner (1964-) and 2 x Jan Ullrich (1975-) the Americans Bo Hamburger (2x) (1970-) and 2 x Kevin Livingston (1973-), the French Laurent Jalabert (1968- ), Jacky Durand (1967-) and Laurent Desbiens (1969-), the Spaniards Marcos Serrano (1972-), Abraham Olano (1970-) and Manuel Beltran (1971-) and finally Dutchman Jeroen Blijlevens (1971-).

Suspected: Italians Ermanno Brignoli (1969-), Alain Turicchia (1975-), Giuseppe Calcaterra (1964-), Stefano Zanini (1969-) and Eddy Mazzoleni (1973-), French Pascal Chanteur (1968-), Frederic Moncassin (1968-) and Stephane Barthe (1972-), American Bobby Julich (1971-), Swiss Roland Meier (1967-), Australian Stuart O'Grady (1973-) and Belgian Axel Merckx (1972-) .

The Dutch newspaper Volkskrant was able to view the notebook of Bertus Fok (1934-), the caretaker of the former cycling team PDM. It stated in black and white that seven of the eight PDM riders had used doping during the 1988 Tour de France. Dutch riders Steven Rooks (1960-) and Gert-Jan Theunisse (1963-) had it already admitted previously. These included cortisones, testosterone and blood doping. According to Fok, no EPO was used at the time.

When answering a questionnaire, barely 21% of the 5,638 UCI members believed that cycling would become cleaner in the next five years, 60% agreed that anti-doping practices in cycling was one of the best. To the Reuters news agency, UCI President Pat McQuaid (1949-) stated that his organization spent $ 7.5 million a year on anti-doping, but that cycling has come up against a culture of drug abuse.

In an interview lasting more than two hours, Lance Armstrong (1971-) confessed to Oprah Winfrey (1954-) on American television that he had used performance-enhancing drugs during his cycling career. The confessions were viewed by 28 million viewers worldwide.

Dutch former rider Michael Boogerd (1972-) confessed to TV channel NOS and to the newspapers 'De Telegraaf' and 'nrc.next' that he had used EPO, blood transfusions and cortisones from 1997 to 2007. Thanks to doping, he won the mountain stage to La Plagne during the 2002 Tour de France and the Amstel Gold Race in 1999. He also revealed that he had close ties with doping trader Stefan Matschiner (1975-) to whom he paid a total of 17,000 euros in 2006 and 2007. The Austrian introduced him to the Viennese blood bank Humanplasma.

"I flew to Vienna and made use of blood transfusions there. I had blood drawn for the purpose of reinserting it later ... I do not mention any names. I was well informed and then went looking for it myself. It was my responsibility, my choice ... At a certain point you are faced with a diabolical dilemma. I wanted to participate at the top. 1997 was the turning point for me, then I made that choice."

In his own words, Boogerd simply bought the EPO in the Netherlands.

For the RTL TV cameras, Dutch former rider Danny Nelissen (1970-) confessed that he had used EPO as a rider of Rabobank in 1996 and 1997.

"I am one of those witnesses and I confirm that the story is correct. In the Tour of 1996 and 1997 I used EPO that I was given by team doctor Geert Leinders. We were laughed at and humiliated by the other riders. The team management thought we were wimpy, we had to do something. I never had to buy it myself, it was a team issue. I don't know how it went later."

Nelissen had since become a commentator at Eurosport, but after his confessions that TV channel fired him.

On Danish television, Danish Rolf Sørensen (1965-), who had also raced for the Rabobank team, also admitted that he had used prohibited substances such as EPO and cortisone during his cycling career.

"I was part of the EPO generation. It's no excuse, but I did what others did. I am well aware that this confession is coming too late, much too late."

The winner of Liège-Bastogne-Liège (1993) and the Tour of Flanders (1997) maintained for a long time that he had never engaged in doping. He invariably denied all rumors, but no one believed him yet. In Denmark it earned him the derisive nickname 'Rolf er ren' (Rolf is clean). In 2002 Sørensen ended his cycling career with 53 wins.

Cuban Yosmani Pol Rodriguez (1980-) tested positive for dexamethasone after the Delray Beach Twilight Criterium. He accepted the two-year suspension.

Because American Graham Aldredge (1992-) did not show up for the doping test after the BMC Racing Cup in Gränichen, Switzerland, he was put aside for eighteen months.

American Aira Yoelkis (1972-) tested positive for phentermine after the race in Port St Lucie, Florida, which earned her a two year ban.

Russian riders Elena Bocharnikova (1991-) (photo) and Yana Bezrukova (1992-) were suspended for two years because they were caught using anabolics.

Turkish rider Mustafa Sayar (1989-), who won the Tour in his home country and finished second in the Tour of Algeria the month before, tested positive for EPO during that last race, meaning he was suspended for two years with retroactive effect.

After the national veteran championship, American David LeDuc (1952-) tested positive for a cocktail of EPO, steroids and amphetamines. He was suspended for two years but he was determined to return to the pack after that suspension, despite being 65 at the time.

After the American Veterans Championship, Richard Meeker (1962-) tested positive for 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone, which gave the American a two-year suspension.

Due to irregularities in his biological passport, the Portuguese cycling association suspended Sergio Ribeiro (1980-) for twelve years. Ribeiro was already caught in EPO in 2007, which then earned him a two year suspension.

German Andreas Klier (1976-) confessed that he had used EPO, growth hormones and cortisones between 1999 and 2006, after which he was suspended for six months and all his results were deleted from 2005 onwards. He immediately ended his sports career.

“I wanted to reach the top in cycling and chose the wrong path. I want to apologize to friends, family and supporters.”

American rider and triathlete Sloan Teeple (1971-) tested positive for testosterone after the Sun Adventure West Texas 12 Pack race in Amarillo, Texas, which gave him an eighteen-month suspension.

In 2011, Argentinian Juan Pablo Dotti (1984-) was suspended for two years due to anabolic and amphetamine use. However, he continued to contest games and for that reason received another two years in 2013.

Russian rider Nikita Novikov (1989-) was suspended for two years after a positive test on the steroid Ostarine, after which his team Vacansoleil threw him out.

Frenchman Sylvain Georges (1984-) tested positive for heptaminol during the Tour of Italy, for which he was suspended for six months.

Russian anti-doping agency RUSADA announced that Andrey Solomennikov (1987-), Roman Maikin (1990-) and Artem Ovechkin (1986-) had tested positive after the national title race in Samara.

Russian Valery Kaykov (1988-) tested positive for GW501516, which was sold on the black market under the name Endurobol. The product was developed as an agonist of the PPAR beta receptors by Ligand Pharmaceuticals and Glaxo Smith Kline to treat metabolic diseases and cardiovascular problems, but production was discontinued in 2007, as cancer has been diagnosed in various organs in animal studies . Kaykov was suspended for two years, flew out at RusVelo and then decided to quit cycling. For the RusVelo team, however, it was a bad thing, as it was already the fourth positive case in a row, which led to a three month ban for the team.

A few months later, the International Cycling Union (UCI) announced that Colombian Marlon Pérez (1976-) and Costa Ricans Paulo Vargas Barrantes (1979-), Pablo Mudarra Segura (1991-), Alan José Morales Castillo (1989-) and Steven Villalobos Azofeifa (1986-) were also caught using GW501516 during the Vuelta Ciclista a Costa Rica.

Spanish team Euskaltel-Euskadi announced that it had suspended Russian rider Alexander Serebryakov (1987-) after UCI announced that it had used EPO. He received a four-year suspension from the UCI.

Danilo Di Luca (1976-) tested positive for EPO in an unannounced check and immediately had to leave the Giro. The Italian had already tested positive for CERA during the Giro of 2009.

After the first Giro stage, Mauro Santambrogio (1984-) was caught using EPO. After Di Luca, the Italian was the second rider of Vini Fantini who was captured in a short time. The American cycling clothing brand DeFeet then broke ties with the Italian team.

During an interview with the German weekly 'Focus', German former rider Jan Ullrich (1973-) finally admitted that he used doping during his career. In the past, the 1997 tour winner consistently denied that infringement, and in recent years he remained vague about it, but now he came up with confessions.

"Yes, I was under treatment at Fuentes, but I am not a fraud. In my day, practically everyone used performance enhancers. I didn't take anything that others didn't take. For me, cheating only started when there was an advantage. That was not the case, I just wanted to create equal opportunities."

Canadian Ryder Hesjedal (1980-) confessed to using prohibited substances for more than ten years. The final winner of the 2012 Giro d'Italia confessed his doping history after the pre-publication of the book 'Yellow Fever' by Michael Rasmussen (1974-), in which the Dane explained how he had learned to use Hesjedal EPO. Because the facts were barred, the Canadian could no longer be punished.

Dutchman Stefan van Dijk (1976-) quit his cycling career after the Belgian doping committee suspended him for eight years due to ozone therapy. In 2005 he had already been punished because he escaped an out of competition doping control.

Equestrian

The British Horseracing Authority's disciplinary committee suspended horse trainer Mahmood Al Zarooni (1976-) for eight years because he had administered the anabolic steroid ethylestranol or stanozolol to eighteen of the animals entrusted to him. Al Zarooni worked in Newmarket for Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum (1949-), the powerful ruler of Dubai who owned the renowned Godolphin racing stable.

Football

The medical committee of the world football association FIFA was very concerned about the increasing use of painkillers. With painkillers and anti-inflammatories, footballers try to soothe the pain associated with straining. FIFA pointed out that as many as one in four players had taken painkillers during the U17 World Cup two years earlier. At the 2006 World Cup, 29% of players took painkillers, four years later in South Africa that had climbed to 35%, with an all-time high where 21 out of 23 players were taking this medication. The same trend continued in other sports, with cycling at rank one.

Brazilian midfielder Carlos Alberto (1984-) was suspended for two years because traces of hydrochlorothiazide and tamoxifen were found in the doping test after his club Vasco de Gama's 3-2 victory over Fluminense.

Portuguese-Brazilian midfielder Deco (1977-) peed positive on the diuretic furosemide just before the end of his career and announced that he would immediately stop playing football. He played 75 international matches for Portugal.

Moroccan international Hamza Abourazzouk (1986-) was suspended for six months because he tested positive for cannabis after Morocco's World Cup qualifier against Tanzania.

After the World Cup qualifier in Harare, Devon Chafa Taitamba (1990-) from Zimbabwe was suspended for six months for using prednisone.

Handball

Danuba Braila Sport Club's Romanian Ionela Irimia Raluca (1990-) had to step aside for two months after she tested positive for dexamethasone.

Hockey

The Dutch hockey association suspended Jesse Mahieu (1978-) one year after traces of cocaine and MDMA were found during an inspection, after which his team fired him. The captain of league division Pinoké was called up fifty times for the national team and won silver with that team at the 2004 Olympics in Athens. Afterwards, he apologized in a press release.

"As everyone hopefully understands, I am very sad and very disappointed in myself. I accept the consequences and I havea to take a look at myself. I want to offer my sincere apologies to everyone who has a warm heart for Pinoké."

Ice hockey

Dutch ice hockey international Sander Dijkstra (1986-) was temporarily suspended for one year after they found illegal substances during an inspection.

Judo

At the 2013 World Cup, Charline Van Snick (1990-) won the bronze medal in the category up to 52kg, but the doping test yielded a positive test for cocaine. The Belgian denied that use and to prove her innocence she appealed to Professor Toxicology Jan Tytgat (1963-) of the Catholic University of Leuven. Indeed, the hair test showed that she was not a regular cocaine user, the low levels in her urine could be the result of involuntary exposure to the product. The International Judo Federation suspended the Belgian for two years, but she went to the TAS which issued the following verdict:

"We confirm the violation of the anti-doping law, but declare Van Snick's appeal well founded."

Her suspension was canceled because of this, but she lost the bronze medal.

Moldovan Andrei Blindu (1988-) was suspended for two years for the use of norandrosterone.

Powerlifting

The National Anti-Doping Agency suspended Romanian Ticudean Sorin Gabriel for two years over the use of trenbolone and fellow countryman Petrean Nicolae Constantin for the same length of time due to the use of methandienone.

Paralympics

American sailor Mike Hersey (1964-) and American bocca player Abdallah Anwar (1983-) tested positive for hydrochlorothiazide and chlorothiazide diuretics in an out-of-competition control. They got off with a public warning.

American rider Shawn Morelli (1976-) was suspended for three months for taking methylhexaneamine. Professionally, she was an engineer in the United States Army and made a major in Afghanistan. At the 2016 Rio Olympics, she won both the road race and the individual pursuit.

American athlete Camdin Crouse (1988-) tested positive for amphetamine and methylhexaneamine after the National Paralympic Track & Field National Championships in San Antonio, Texas, earning him a two-year suspension.

Rowing

Greg Flood (1989-) and Frank Petrucci (1989-) tested positive for glycerol after the American World Cup trials. They came off with a warning and were allowed to go to the World Cup, where they finished eighth in the double scull.

Rugby

Former French international Jean-Pierre Élissalde (1953-) confessed to a local radio station that he had used amphetamines during his sporting career. Between 1980 and 1981, Elissalde earned five selections for the national team, then coached Japanese and French teams. According to him, the use of amphetamines was the most normal thing in the world at that time.

"Cyclists, footballers and of course also rugby players took amphetamines. I personally took them twice, there was nothing special about that, and in order to work even harder and build muscle, there were other forms of doping afterwards."

The comment came a few days after it became known that in 2012, compared to any other sport, more positive drug tests were found in French rugby.

Irish player John Moroney (1993-) of the Young Munster Rugby Football Club delivered a positive test on marijuana and had to go to the side for three months.

British player Jack Warrington (1992-) of Sedgley Park RF tested positive for the banned stimulant methylhexaneamine and could therefore watch from the sidelines for two years.

Skiing

Before the Sochi Winter Olympics, Russian freestyle ski champion Anna Orlovskaya (1995-) was suspended for two years due to doping use.

Snowboarding

For refusing a doping test, American Tylor Flanagan (1994-) was suspended for eighteen months. The following year, he was arrested and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment for attacking his former 17-year-old girlfriend for the second time

Swimming

The disciplinary committee of the French swimming federation suspended Arnaud Lorgeril (1977-) for eight months for a positive test on THC / Cannabis during the December swimming championships in Martinique.

In March, the Russian anti-doping agency suspended Ksenia Moskvina (1989-) for six years after the European record holder tested 100m backstroke short track a second time.

Countrywoman Ekaterina Andreyeva (1993-) was banned for eighteen months for violating anti-doping rules. The 19-year-old won silver in the 200m individual medley in the first 2010 Youth Olympics and in 2014 she swam the same event at the London Olympics.

Nataliya Lovtsova (1988-) was the third Russian swimmer to be suspended for doping in March. Lovtsova was a member of the relay team 4 x 100m freestyle during the 2014 London Olympics and four years later in Rio she swam the 50, 100 and 4 x 100m freestyle plus the 100m butterfly. She had to stay aside for 2.5 years.

In May 2013, the Russian anti-doping agency announced that 800m specialist Anastasia Krapivina (1994-) (photo) and 200m butterfly swimmer Victoria Mukhametova (1999-) had tested positive in the finals of the national championships in late April. The name of the products was not released.

In July, Russian 100m sprinter Nikita Maksimov (1996-) flew, during an out-of-competition check there were traces of the anabolic Turinabol in his urine. The Russian Federation gave him two years of starting ban and deleted his results from the Russian championships.

In August, butterfly stroke specialist Igor Akhlyustin (1989-), breaststroke swimmer Anton Komlev (1995-) and freestyle specialist Mikhail Dovgalyuk (1995-) followed.

Vladislav Shuliko (2000) from Kyrgyzstan tested positive for methylhexaneamine in September during the Eurasian Games in Kazakhstan, for which he was suspended for a year.

Polish Katarzyna Gorniak (1995-) tested positive for beta-methylphenylethylamine and oxylofryna during the Nationwide Youth Olympics in Drzonkow, Poland. The Polish swimming federation imposed a six-month ban on her starting.

Polish freestyle specialist Paula Zukowska (1993-) tested positive for methylhexaneamine during the 2012 Polish National Grand Prix and received a year's suspension.

Brazilian diver Hugo Parisi (1984-) was unable to compete for three months due to a positive test on prednisone and prednisolone after the Diving Grand Prix in Rostock, Germany.

At the 2012 World Cup short track in Istanbul, Mads Glaesner (1988-) won the 1,500m freestyle and also won the bronze medal in the 400m freestyle. However, the retrospective doping test revealed that he had used levmetamphetamine, which is why the Dane had to hand in both medals.

Tennis

After the Munich tournament, Croaat Marin Cilic (1988-) tested positive for nikethamide, which gave him a nine-month suspension. Later, the Court of Arbitration for Sport reduced that sentence to four months because Cilic claimed the product was in a glucose tablet he bought in a pharmacy. The following year, the Croat won the US Open.

During the Monte Carlo tournament, Serbian Viktor Troicki (1986-) refused a blood test because he was feeling unwell and had a phobia of needles. It took him eighteen months of suspension. Even the intervention of his good friend Novak Djokovic (1987-) was to no avail.

Czech Barbora Strycova (1986-) was suspended for six months due to the use of sibutramine. She claimed that she ingested the product through a dietary supplement. She lost the points won from Luxembourg and had to repay the prize money.

Spanish Nuria Llagostera Vives (1980-) was suspended for two years because traces of d-methamphetamine were found in her urine during the WTA tournament in Stanford. She then decided to quit top sport.

Track and Field

The International Athletics Federation introduced the four-year suspension for those who had used doping.

The alarming increase in Kenyan athletes caught with illicit substances and the lack of response from Kenya Athletics led to a conviction by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

German physician and former top athlete Heidi Schüller (1950-) accused her compatriot Thomas Bach (1953-) of hypocrisy.

"For me, Bach is the wrong man in the wrong place. He must have known more about doping than he admits. At the time it was talked about everywhere, he must have heard that."

To which Bach, the chairman of the Deutschen Olympischen Sportbundes (DOSB), who had won the gold medal with the German fencing team at the 1976 Games in Montreal, replied:

"Doping was not an issue for fencing athletes."

To which Schüller argued again:

"As an official, he had to present it that way. At the time in Munich, everyone was talking about it. But Thomas Bach had a career as an official, so you have to adapt and start to hiss if you want to move higher."

Heidi Schüller also claimed that some Swedish athletes sold tablets from the GDR when she was still active as an athlete in Leverkusen. There was a real black market among the athletes in the guest bedrooms.

"The pill boxes and tablets circulated every day."

After more than thirty Turkish athletes were caught using banned substances in one year, Mehmet Terzi (1955-) resigned as chairman of the Turkish athletics association. In the past, Terzi was a successful athlete, finishing sixteenth in the marathon at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. In 1981 he won the 25km of Berlin, in 1983 he finished second in the Frankfurt Marathon, in 1985 he became Turkish champion, in 1987 he finished sixth in the London Marathon and that year he also won the San-Francisco Marathon . He won the Marathon of the Meditarian Games in 1983 and the Marathon of the Balkan Games in 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1988.

The Turkish athletics federation then suspended 31 athletes for two years. Among the suspended Esref Apak (1982-), silver medalist in hammer throw at the 2004 Athens Olympics.

Turkish Nevin Yanit (1986-), in 2010 and 2012 European champion in the 100m hurdles, was suspended for two years because she tested positive for testosterone and stanozolol after the Düsseldorfer PSD Bank Meeting. Yanit appealed this to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which however increased her sentence to three years because it had now been discovered that irregularities were found in her biological passport, indicating blood doping.

Nigerian-born Mary Akor (1976-), who competed with the national team in the 2005 and 2007 World Cups, tested positive for Clenbuterol after a marathon in Mexico, after which she was suspended for two years.

In May, multiple Olympic and multiple world champion Veronica Campbel-Brown (1982-) tested positive for furosemide, a diuretic that masks doping use. She was suspended and could not defend her title of the 200 m at the World Cup in Moscow. However, in February 2014 she was acquitted by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) because the collection and treatment of her urine sample did not meet the requirements and the test results were therefore unreliable.

During a July 17 search at their Italian hotel, Asafa Powell (1982-), former 100m world record holder, and Sherone Simpson (1984-), gold medalist in the 4 x 100m at the 2004 Olympics, tested positive for oxilofrin. Both Jamaicans claimed to have been given a dietary supplement by their Canadian trainer Christopher Xuereb (1974-), which was probably contaminated with the banned product. They were suspended for eighteen months. When Powell appealed, his sentence was reduced by six months.

Discus thrower Allison Randall (1988-) was the next Jamaican to be caught. During the national championship, she delivered a postiive test on diuretics and for that she had to side for two years.

'A never-ending story', discus thrower Traves Smikle (1992-) was the umpteenth Jamaican who reacted positive to a doping test during the national championship. He was suspended for two years and could forget going to the World Cup a few weeks later.

"As an athlete, I am responsible for what is found in my body. But I want to emphasize that I have never intentionally used prohibited substances. It is sad and I am also very surprised. I never intended to screw things up. I consider myself an ambassador for the sport and has always been a strong supporter of doping controls."

In July, the French newspaper l'Equipe reported that American sprinter Tyson Gay (1982-) had tested positive for anabolics during an unannounced check-up at training camp, preventing him from going to the World Cup in Moscow. He was suspended for two years and had to hand in the silver medal he won the year before with the American relay team in the 4 x 100m at the London Olympics. Adidas then broke his contract. In addition, he had to repay the $ 500,000 prize money he had earned during six different meetings. His suspension was subsequently halved because he cooperated in the judicial investigation.

In an interview with the German newspaper 'Abendzeitung', German sprint legend Armin Hary (1937-) proposed to cancel all sprint world records and to start from scratch. The 1960 Olympic champion, who was the first to run the 100 meters in 10 seconds, also wanted to punish doping sinners more severely.

"Ten years suspension and even better for life. If one would do that, we will have pure Olympics again in five to ten years."

In the sports newspaper 'Bild' Hary received the support of a compatriot, Olympic discus champion Robert Harting (1984-).

"There should be at least a five-year suspension, that's the only thing that helps. If cheaters are suspended for five years, they can't bridge that with the money they earned during the year they used doping. Now that is possible."

However, Harting had argued just before the 2009 World Cup in Berlin for a limited release of some doping products. In 2015, he criticized the work of the World Anti-Doping Agency and complained about the imbalance in the global anti-doping struggle.

Russian athletics was once again discredited. In March, Natalia Wolgina (1977-) tested positive for metolone after her victory in the Two Oceans Marathon. She was suspended for two years.

The Russian athletics association suspended middle distance runner Olesya Syreva (1983-) and marathon runner Mikhail Lemayev (1986-) for two years because of abnormal blood values in their biological passport. Syreva had won the silvermedal in the 3,000m at the 2011 European Indoor Championships and because the suspension was retroactive, she had to surrender that medal.

Two-year suspension for Russian sprinter Denis Alekseyev (1987-) after testing positive for Oral Turinabol in an out-of-competition check. In May 2016, it was reported that Alekseyev along with thirteen other Russians, including nine medalists, responded positively to retesting the urine samples from the 2008 Olympics, forcing him to return all results, medals and records from that date. Since it was his second offense, he was suspended for life, in addition, the Russian relay team lost 4 x 400m, of which he was part, the bronze medal she had won in London.

After retests of the 2005 World Cup samples, former Russian Olympic and world champions, shot putter Svetlana Krivelyova (1969-) and hammer thrower Olga Kuzenkova (1970-) were excluded from competition for two years with retroactive effect.

Countrywoman Tatyana Kotova (1976-) who then won the silver medal in the long jump was also caught. Two years of suspension and surrender of the medals was the verdict for both.

But they were not the only ones, other Russians were also positive. Shot putter Irina Korzhanenko (1974-), disc-throwers Natalya Sidova (1972-) and Daria Pishchalnikova (1985-), hammer thrower Tatyana Lysenko (1983-) and javelin-thrower Oksana Yarygina (1972-) also tested positive The first two were caught for the second time, so they received a lifelong suspension, while Pishchalnikova was given eight years.

Russian fast walkers Tatyana Mineyeva (1988-) and Sergei Morozov (1988-) also got bad news, just like runner Inga Abitova (1982-). For two years, Mineyeva and Abitova received a life-long ban from Morozov for his second offense.

Silver medalist hammer-thrower Vadim Devyatovskiy (1977-) and former world shot putter Andrei Mikhnevich (1976-) from Belarus tested also positive.

Olga Golowkina (1986-), the European champion of the 5,000m, was the 32nd Russian athlete to be excluded for two years. An out-of-competition control revealed that she had used dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.

On April 17, the Russian Athletics Federation suspended pole vaulter Ivan Gertlein (1987-) two years after testing positive for testosterone.

American record holder shot put Jillian Camarena-Williams (1982-) was suspended for six months when she was caught in a training camp at Clomifen.

American high jumper Spencer Walden (1994-) was caught using cannabis and was suspended for six months.

American high jumper Cameron Ostrowski (1992-) tested positive for methylhexaneamine and was suspended for six months before that.

American sprinter Trey Downing (1995-) refused a doping test during an out-of-competition check and that took him an eighteen-month suspension.

Shawn Crawford (1978-), the former world indoor champion and multiple American 200m champion, was suspended for two years because he had missed a doping test three times in eighteen months due to unclear whereabouts. According to coach Bob Kersee, there was a misunderstanding, because after the American Olympic Trials of the year Crawford had announced his retirement at the beginning of that year.

Roger Wenzel (1949-), 64, was suspended for two years for testing positive for anabolic steroids after the USA Masters Outdoor Track & Field Championships in Lisle, Illinois. Wenzel argued that he was obliged to take testosterone because he had Parkinson's disease or would die otherwise.

During the Universiade in Kazan, Russia, Romanian Roxana Bîrca (1988-) won the 5,000m, but afterwards it turned out that she had used methasterone. She had to hand in her medal, was removed from the lists and suspended for two years.

Due to the use of EPO and nandrolone, the Kenyan Athletics Association suspended its marathon runners Wilson Erupe (1988-), Nixon Cherutich (1986-), Salome Biwott (1982-) and Jynocel Onyancha (1990-) for two years. Biwott tested positive again in 2019 after the Sao Paulo marathon, this time on norandrosterone, which meant an eight year suspension.

Bulgarian Tesdschan Naimova (1987-) won the 60m at the European Indoor Championships in Gothenburg. The control afterwards demonstrated the use of the anabolic steroid drostanolone. Handing over the gold and lifelong suspension was the verdict, because in 2009 she had also been suspended for two years because she had messed with her urine samples.

After the European Championship for country teams, French hurdler Alice Decaux (1985-) tested positive for amphetamines, because she was suspended for six months before she could not go to the World Cup in Moscow.

Italian long-distance runner Devis Licciardi (1986-) was caught with a urine-filled artificial penis during the doping test after the national championship, after which he was suspended for three years. The Italian came into the crosshairs of the doping inspectors because, after his mediocre chronos from the past, he was suddenly bursting with top times. His girlfriend and coach Sara Malpetti (1991-) bought the penis on the internet and was given 3.5 years for that.

100m runners Kelly-Ann Baptiste (1986-) and Semoy Hackett (1988-) had already traveled to the World Cup in Moscow, but after their positive test, the athletes from Trinidad Tobago could pack their bags again. Baptiste ran the 4 x 100m final at the 2012 Olympics, but the relay team was disqualified for doping afterwards. Hacket had been suspended for six months after the 2011 national championship because it appeared that she had taken methylhexanamin, now the verdict was two years and four months.

Ukrainian Roman Avramenko (1988-) finished fifth in the javelin throw, but was suspended for two years for being caught using dehydrochloromethyltestosterone. After that he applied for Russian nationality, but in 2015 after a new positive test at an unannounced checkup, he got eight years suspension.

In the race walking competition, Aiman Kozjachmetova (1987-) from Kazakhstan and Ebrahim Rahimian (1981-) (photo1) from Iran tested positive for EPO, as did the Guatemalan marathon runner Jeremías Saloj (1988-) (photo2).

Ukrainian sprinter Yelyzaweta Bryzhina (1989-) had used drostanolone and was suspended for two years.

Afghan sprinter Massoud Azizi (1985-) was caught using nandrolone, which meant he could watch two years from the side.

Volley-ball

Volleyball and beach volleyball player Alix Klineman (1989-) tested positive for anabolic steroids and had to go to the side for thirteen months. According to the US, the positive results were the result of an accidental intake of her mother's DHEA supplement.

Water polo

Romanian Tudor Alexandru Dobre was suspended for six months after 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid was found in a control.

Because of the use of cannabis, Belgian Sammy Claes (1987-) was suspended for a year.

The Russian Water Polo Federation suspended Ekaterina Tankeeva (1989-) for three months, she was a member of the Russian team that competed at the 2012 London Olympics.

Weightlifting

After a string of nine positive doping tests from that country, the international weight-lifting federation fined the Kazakhstan weightlifers' union $ 500,000.

The International Weightlifters Association has never issued so many sentences.

Suspended for life: Armenian Naira Hartyyunyan (1989-), Azerbaijani Zulfugar Suleymanov (1982-), Belarusian Katsiaryna Shkuratava (1987-) and Mongolian Bayarmaa Namkhaidori.

Two-year suspension for Albanian Briken Calja (1990-), Armenians Ashot Beghazyan, Davit Gasparyan (2003-), Margaryta Ghazaryan, Andranik Karapetyan (1995-), Vladik Karapetyan (1983-) and Gor Minasyan (1994-), Azerbaijan Silviya Angelova (1982-), Sardar Hasanov (1985-), Valentin Hristov (1994-), Kamran Ismayilov (1993-), Alona Kiriienko (1987-), Marziyya Maharramova (1996-), Kseniia Vyshnytska (1995-) and Intiqam Zairov (1985-), Belarusian Aliaksandr Makaranka (1990-), Canadian Johanie Filiatreault (1993-), Colombian Luis Alfredo Arteta Tejera, Czechs Kamil Kucera (1985-) and Jiri Orsag (1989-), Egyptians Naglaa Ibrahim Hamed Khallaf and Nahla Ramadan (1985-), Georgians Davit Gogia (1990-), Shota Mishvelidze (1994-), Lasha Talakhadze (1993-) and Rauli Tsirekidze (1987-), Iranians Yasin Bagheri Kahkesh ( 1991-) and Sohrab Moradi (1988-), Iraqis Safaa Al-Jumaili (1990-) and Mohammed Rubaiawi, Kazakhs Alexandra Aborneva (1986-), Maira Faizollayeva (1 995-), Aidar Kazov (1995-), Farkhad Kharki (1991-), Maxim Laktinov, Assem Sarsekenova (1993-), Yekaterina Stolyarenko (1998-), Denis Ulanov (1993-), Yevgeniy Yevstafyev, Alexandr Zaichikov (1992- ), Yerbolat Zholamanov (1993-) and Galymbek Zhubatkanov (1995-), the brothers Aleksei (1989-) and Sergei Dolgalev (1992-) from Kyrgyzstan, Malays Bin Ku Ibrahom Ku Muhammad Yuzir and Bin Mat Lazat Mohd Dinie Akmal (1994) -), Moldovans Gheorghe Cernei (1990-) and Alexandr Spac (1989-), Miguel Angel Navarrete Rosales (1992-) from Nicaragua, Palestinian Khezeiq Adham (1993-), Romanians Elena Ramona Andries (1994-), Razvan Constantin Martin (1991-), Gabriel Sincraian (1988-) and Georgiana Andreea Tites (1992-), Russians Anastasiia Romanova (1991-) and Marina Shainova (1986-), Turkish Saziye Okur (1992-), Ukrainians Svitlana Cherniavska (1984-), Iryna Dekha (1996-), Oleksandr Pielieshenko (1994-), Alyona Vashyna (1997-) and Karyna Zhuzhoma, American Sarah Elizabeth Robles (1988-), Uztbekains Yusupov Abdulaziz (1982-), Ibragimov Amirzoda (1996-), Madiyor Ibragimov, Bakhram Mendibaev (1983-), Ibrohim Mirzaev, Sherzod Rusmetov and Jakhongir Zinnatov and Venezuelans Leomar de Jesus Albarranz Ventura (1985-) and Maria Fernanda Zapata (1987-).

The Russian federation suspended ten of its weightlifters for doping.

Ten years for Evgeniy Kolomiets (1991-) and Yuriy Selyutin (1991-).

Two years for Mikhail Reznichenko (1981-), Tejmur Aleskerov (1991-), Dmitry Srybnyj (1992-), Andrey Rybakov (1982-), Amina Maskhadova (1985-), Igor Petrov (1965-) and Kristina Silkina (1986-).

Three months before Oleg Musokhranov (1995-).

American Kristopher Dyer (1992-) tested positive for methylhexaneamine during the National University Championships in Johnson City, Tennessee, which left him inactive for nine months.

80-year-old American Don Ramos (1933-) was caught using testosterone during a competition in Chicago. Although the 'oldest doped ever' argued that he had been using that product for 20 years on a doctor's prescription, he was still suspended for two years.

American Brian Wilhelm (1987-) delivered a positive pee on methylhexaneamine after the American Open in Palm Springs, California, which earned him a nine-month suspension.

Iranian heavyweight Saeid Alihosseini (1988-) was banned from competition for eight years due to repeated doping use. He also had to hand in the silver medals of the 2017 World Cup and the 2018 Asian Games.

Wrestling

American Dominique Bradley (1989-) tested positive for methylhexaneamine during the U.S. Open in Las Vegas, Nevada, which meant he had to watch for eight months.

World champion Amir Aziz Ali-Akbari (1987-) was suspended for life because he was caught doping for the second time in his career. After achieving the world heavyweight title in Hungary, the Iranian tested positive for anabolic steroids. He was first caught in 2011 and suspended for two years, missing the London Olympics.


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