History of sports medicine - 1826-1830


The Tiemann Dynamometer was manufactured by the American company of George Tiemann (1795-1868) and was made of brass and steel.


In his work 'Gymnastique Médicale: Ou L'exercice Appliqué Aux Organes De L'homme D'après Les Lois De La Physiologie, The L'hygiène Et De La Thérapeutique', French physician Charles Londe (1795-1862) explained that gymnastics should include active, passive and mixed exercises, but his French colleagues saw no indication for medical conditions.


French surgeon Jacques Mathieu Delpech (1777-1832) started a clinic for orthopedic diseases at Hôtel-Dieu Saint-Eloi in Montpellier. There he introduced the 'tenotomy', a surgical process to correct contraction abnormalities of the limbs. He was also a pioneer in the field of skin transplantation and rhinoplasty and is credited with documenting the first rhinoplastic operation in France. In 1928 he published 'De l'orthomorphie par rapport à l'espèce humaine', which consisted of two volumes and an atlas. He died dramatically when he was shot down by a patient on October 28, 1832.


Jean-Baptiste Sarlandière (1787-1838) was a French anatomist and physiologist, who introduced electro-acupuncture in Europe, with which he treated respiratory and rheumatoid problems, but also certain forms of paralysis. He also introduced the massage through percussion and in 1829 he published a beautiful anatomy atlas with an abundance of images. At the age of 16 he started medical studies at the local hospital in Noirmoutiers, but was soon called to military service, spending the next years as part of the French Army (1803-1814). In 1814 he resumed his studies, and was appointed physician at the military hospital in Paris.

Together with his friend and mentor François Magendie (1783-1855) (photo) he collaborated on several physiological experiments.

With the Paris ophthalmologist Antoine-Pierre Demours (1762-1836), he delivered a battle over the property rights of the Bdellometer, a mechanical blood pump that simplified the venous lesions.


German orthopedist Jacob Heine (1800-1879) started the first German orthopedic institute in Cannstatt, where orthopedic gymnastics were performed


In the 1830s German doctors and gymnastics teachers founded institutes where Swedish medical gymnastics or variants were applied. There were also a lot of publications about so-called medical gymnastics. The German medical gym was derived from the systems developed by the German gymnastics teachers Friedrich L. Jahn (1778-1852) and Adolf Spiesz (1810-1858).

Around the middle of the century, the activities and writings of these German gymnasts influenced the thinking about gymnastics and its medical application. Medics, teachers, clergy and literary experts pointed out the importance of physical education.


German physician Karl Friedrich Koch (1802-1871) wrote his famous book 'Gymnastik aus dem Gesichtspunkte der Diatetik und der Psychologie' (Gymnastics from the point of view of dietetics and psychology). He himself was an enthusiastic sportsman and supporter of the gymnastics movement.