In Germany the word 'Sportarzt' was used for the first time.
At the Paris Olympics, ambulances and first-aid stations staffed with physicians and nurses were set along the marathon route.
German physician and physiologist Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was one of the founders of German sports medicine at Berlin University La Charité. Because of the rising anti-Semitism he emigrated to Argentina in 1922 and later to Chile.
Under the protection of German internist Friedrich Kraus (1858-1936), who was also director of the II. Medizinischen Klinik der Charité, Nicolai was the first to use the ECG in sports studies. Together with Kraus he published 'Das Elektrokardiogramm des gesunden und kranken Menschen'.
American physiologist Wilbur Olin Atwater (1844-1907) studied boat crew members from Harvard and Yale and found a typical diet consisted of 15.6% protein, 40.7% fat, 44.2% carbohydrates, totalling 4085 Kcal/day.
In 1900, La Société de Kinésithérapie (S.D.K.) was founded in Paris, consisting of sixteen founding members, a woman, three national and six international correspondents. The association's goal was to
"gather doctors involved in medical gymnastics and massage, observations and experiences related to this branch of medicine, but also to examine and study the ethical and professional issues of that specialty.".
Professor Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904) was the first honorary chairman.
American anthropologist Fred Smedley developed the first isometric dynamometer with parallel levers to have an adjustable grip. The size of the handle was adjusted by turning a screw on the inside of the handle.
The first German school for physiotherapy, the 'Kieler Lehranstalt für Heilkunst' was founded.
German physicist and chemist Walther Nernst (1864-1941) studied the stimulation currents in a scientific way. He determined that they did not cause any changes to the ion structure of the human body and were therefore harmless.
At the turn of the century, the baths were mushrooming.
A hydro massage treatment at the Evian-les-Bains institute.
There was also an institute for hydrotherapy in Saint-Amand-les-Bains.
The French physiologist Jules Marey (1830-1904) used the chronophotography at the 1900 Olympics in Paris to reveal the secrets of the champions.
With his chronophotographic rifle, Marey was able to capture twelve consecutive frames in a single picture in one second.
Margaret Gast (1876-1968) was born in Bavaria, Germany, but emigrated to the United States at the age of 16. Her original family name was Nagengast, but she shortened it to Gast to be more easily accepted in the States. She was one of the first female cyclists and in June 1900 in the New York area she set the world record for the 1,000 miles to 120 hours. After quiting cycling, she opened a massage studio in Manhattan as well as the pension house 'the Little Dutchess Inn' in Pawling, New York. She practiced massage until her 84th birthday.
Frenchman Emile Peyre (1876-1948) was the first cyclist to retrain to become a masseur. He settled in Paris and immediately had a busy practice, with a lot of champions in cycling, wrestling and athletics. He soon got the nickname of the man with the golden fingers.