In Berlin, German physiologists Carl von Voigt (1831-1908) and Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920) developed their own bicycle ergometer.
To measure the gas exchange, they had their test subjects practice an air-tight respiration chamber on this bicycle.
Steam baths also became popular, with all or part of the body being submerged in a water-saturated environment.
German internist Friedrich Kraus (1858-1936) started a sports medical research center in Berlin II. Medizinischen Klinik der Charité. He demanded the most modern diagnostic devices such as an X-ray device and ECG device, but also installed a very modern laboratory.
In the bulletin 'Experiments on the metabolism of matter and energy in the human body' by American physiologists Wilbur Olin Atwater (1837-1902) and Francis Gano Benedict (1870-1957), the picture above was printed from the open-circuit respiration room. Carefully conditioned room air was drawn into the room and then evacuated via hydrochloric acid vats. The room was well insulated and kept at constant temperature by circulating water
In the early 1900s, massage techniques were developed in Germany that became known as 'reflex massage'. It was the first time that the benefits of massage techniques were credited with reflex actions. In 1902, Viennese physician Alfons Cornelius (1865-1933) published the manuscript 'Druckpunkte, Ihre Entstehung, Bedeutung Bei Neuralgien' (Pressure points, their origin and meaning in neuralgia), in which he noted that the application of pressure incites changes in the body. He observed that pressure to certain spots triggered muscle contractions, changes in blood pressure, variation in warmth and fluid in the body and directly influenced the 'psychic processes' or mental state of the patients. Cornelius explained his theory about the effect of pressure:
"It is a purely mechanical obstruction of the sensitive neurons, the neurons of the sympathetic nerve system."
In 1902, American physician Douglas Graham (1848-1928) published 'A treatise on massage, theoretical and practical: its history, mode of application and effects, indications and contraindications, with results in about fifteen hundred cases'
"Perfectly massaged, one feels completely regenerated, a feeling of extreme comfort pervades the whole system, the chest expands, and we breathe with pleasure; the blood circulates with ease, and we have a sensation as if freed from an enormous load; we experience a suppleness and lightness 'til then unknown. It seems as if we truly lived for the first time. There is a lively feeling of existence which radiates to the extremities of the body, whilst the whole is given over to the most delightful sensations; the mind takes cognizance of these, and enjoys the most agreeable thoughts; the imagination wanders over the universe which it adorns, sees everywhere smiling pictures, every-where the image of happiness. If life were only a succession of ideas, the rapidity with which memory retraces, them, the vigor with which the mind runs over the extended chain of them, would make one believe that in the two hours of delicious calm which follow a great many years have passed."