Swiss physiologist Jules Jacquet (1865-1937) built an asymetric chamber of 1.4 m³ with an open-circuit system in which pure air was pumped into the room. The test person could sit or lie down and via a wet gas meter a small sample of air was taken at a rate determined by the rotation of the drum of the meter. CO2 and O2 were determined via a Petterson type device.
German physiologist Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920) tested his portable gas meter not only during marching, but also during cycling, during hot air ballooning
typing during office hours, playing music,
and even while swimming. The latter was the very first experiment of that genre.
Because the respirators of Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920) could be used both for determining the carbon dioxide production and the oxygen consumption, it was also possible to register the metabolic changes fairly accurately over relatively short time intervals. In particular, the direct determination of respiratory coefficients (RQS).
This was an important advantage compared to the procedure of the widely used respiratory chamber of Max Joseph von Pettenkofer (1818-1901), which only allowed the direct measurement of CO2 release. With the Pettenkofer procedure, the respiratory quotient could only be determined indirectly by weighing the subject before and after the experiment. The difference obtained was added to all physical excretions (CO2, water vapor, urine, faeces, etc.) and all intakes were subtracted from that sum. The remaining amount then represented the oxygen uptake.
'Santé, Beauté, Force' was the slogan of the French academic and photographer Edmond Desbonnet (1867-1953). He placed physical education in France in the spotlight by opening a chain of gym clubs and with publications in fitness magazines. He used a lot of photographs of famous male and female athletes. This laid a strong foundation for physical culture in Europe, but also for fitness as an industry. At the height of his popularity, he had more than two hundred fitness centers and some of the famous early strong men and bodybuilders were fervent supporters of the Desbonnet method. From London he launched jiu-jitsu in France, for which he opened a special sports hall on the Paris Champs-Élysées.
In the French town of Reims, 'Au collège d'athlètes' was founded, where athletes were supervised in every possible way. Of course there were also massages.
Also in Aix-les-Bains they started with thermal baths, where many different forms of massage were applied.