American physician C. Ward Crampton (1877-1964), director physical training and hygiene in New York City, published the article 'A Test of Condition' in the journal 'Medical News'. Attempts to assess the physical condition were an important aspect of the 'physical educators' at the turn of the century, many of whom were physicians.
In the British Harrogate an hydromassage institute was opened.
German sports physician Ferdinand-August Schmidt (1852-1929) with his 'Physiologie der Leibesübungen' (Physiology of physical exercises) from 1905, German Professor of hygiene Ferdinand Hueppe (1952-1938) with his 'Handbuch der Hygiene' (Handbook of hygiene) from 1899 and 'Zur Sporthygiene' (About sports hygiene) from 1906 and German physiologist Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920) with his publications 'Studien zu einer Physiologie des Marsches' (Studies on a physiology of marches) from 1901 and 'Leistungsfähigkeit und Sauerstoffbedarf bei maximaler Arbeit' (Performance and oxygen requirement at maximum work) from 1911, delivered milestone contributions on exercise and sports physiology and laid the foundation of the sports medical development.
The 'Société de Kinésithérapie' and the 'Société d'Electrothérapie' were associated to pressure the medical scientific world. In August 1905 they organized their '1er Congrès International de Physiothérapie' in Liège, for which six hundred physicians enrolled.
In the context of that congress there was an exhibition where among others the devices developed by the Swedish orthopedist Gustav Zander (1835-1920) were shown.
At this first congress all new physiotherapy techniques from different countries were discussed: physiotherapy, mecanotherapy, massage, massotherapy, thermotherapy, aerotherapy, hydrotherapy, crenotherapy, electrotherapy, electrodiagnostics, phototherapy and radiotherapy. The congress also underlined the problems associated with the lack of adequate university medical education of these different methods.
A bicycle ergometer whose rear wheel was replaced by a copper disc that rotated between a magnetic field. The power of the two magnets could be adjusted via the amount of electricity that was driven by the coils, the principle of an electric brake.
Very nice example of massage and manipulations of arms, shoulders and legs, practiced by nuns on men. It is a photo of the massage room of the auxiliary hospital No 17 Héricy-sur-Seine.
Eduard Jacobi (1862-1915), head of the Departmenet Dermatologie at the Universität Freiburg, advised university students to ski in the winter and in the summer to make mountain tours and great walks, to swim, to cycle, to gymnastics or to fencing to suppress their sexual urge and thus prevent venereal diseases.
The image of the plethysmograph designed by Briton Johns Scott Haldane (1860-1936), Professor of Physiology at the University of Birmingham, and his student and colleague John Gillies Priestley (1880-1941), that appeared in the article 'The regulation of the lung ventilation 'in the The Journal of Physiology 32.3-4 (1905): 225-266.