In the name of the physiotherapists, American Mary McMillan (1880-1959) founded the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association, the forerunner of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), which would later count 76,000 members. Mary McMillan is considered one of the first physical therapists.
In 1917, as Chief Aide at the Walter Reed Army Hospital of Washington DC, she was already involved in the establishment of the Reconstruction Aids department, where wounded soldiers were cared for during the First World War. She gave physical therapy courses at the Reed College in Oregon, consisting of massage, electrotherapy and hydrotherapy. She wrote the first American textbook on physiotherapy and exercise therapy entitled 'Massage' and later she started the first fitness center at Peiping Union Medical College in China.
On January 21, 1921, the 'Société médicale d'éducation physique et du sport' (Smeps) was founded in Paris under the impetus of army physician Maurice Boigey (1877-1952), apparently the first association of that kind worldwide.
Three ads from the Sanborn Handy Metabolism Apparatus that appeared in 'The American Physician', 'The American Journal of the Medical Sciences' and 'The Journal of the American Medical Association'.
The history of Dutch Sports Medicine began around 1921 when, at the initiative of rheumatologist Jan van Breemen (1874-1961), the 'Nederlandsche Geneeskundige Vereeniging ter bevordering van de Lichamelijke Opvoeding' '(NGVLO - Dutch Medical Association for the Promotion of Physical Education) was founded, whose goal was ‘de bestudeering der vraagstukken op het gebied der lichamelijke opvoeding voorzoover die vraagstukken van geneeskundig belang zijn’ (the study of the issues in the field of physical education in so far as these issues are of medical importance).
American physician Dudley Allen Sargent (1849-1924) was a pioneer of physical education at Harvard University. At the time that the concept of 'physical education beneficial to health and well-being' was introduced, Sargent added scientific research to fitness instructions. He saw benefits in all physical education programs and taught them in his Normal School and the Harvard Summer School. Sargent was an early innovator of physical education. The 'Sargent Test' bears his name, but is better known as the vertical jump test. He also developed various types of exercise equipment that are still used in gyms. He showed great interest in anthropometry and went to great lengths to examine the perfect proportions of the human body.
In the 'International Journal of Surgery, 1921, Volume 34. Page 261' an image of the McKesson Metabolor was shown. It was used to measure the basal metabolism and it was in fact a variantof the spirometer of the Danish Professor Physiologie August Krogh (1874-1949).