A portable Douglas Bag from 1923.
In 1923, German Doctor in Internal Medicine Herbert Herxheimer (1894-1985) published 'Die Rolle der Leibesübungen in der Therapie', in which he dealt with the therapeutic procedures of movement therapy, physiotherapy and rehabilitation.
In France, a higher education in physical education was taught at the medical schools of Paris, Lyon, Nancy and Lille.
The first Dutch sports inspection agency was established in The Hague, which quickly followed suit and in 1930 these sports inspection agencies united to the 'Federatie van Bureaux voor Medische Sportkeuring' (Federation of Bureaux for Medical Sports Inspection). By making the sport inspection obligatory, 300,000 inspections were performed in 225 different centers during the peak years. The sport inspection was very brief, was often performed by general practitioners and was usually limited to ten deep knee bends.
British Physiologist and Nobel laureate Archibald Vivian Hill (1886-1977) published the article 'Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen' in the Quarterly Journal of Medicine, in which he stated:
"When walking, the oxygen demand increases continuously as the speed increases, .... the actual oxygen uptake, however, reaches a maximum above which no effort can drive them." Oxygen uptake can reach its maximum and remain constant merely because of limitations of the circulatory system and the respiratory system it can not go higher. "
At the University of Copenhagen, diabetologist Hans Christian Hagedorn (1888-1971) developed a device specifically adapted for clinical use that could graphically record oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide output.
His experiences with the respiration machine of Danish physiologist August Krogh (1874-1949) taught him that it is extremely useful for clinical research to graphically display oxygen consumption. Because the graphs showed whether respiration and metabolism were uniform or not, an important check when studying subjects who had not been trained for metabolic experiments. With the tables of German physiologist Nathan Zuntz (1847-1920) the heat production could be calculated and also the calculations and tables of August Krogh (1874-1949) were used. He calculated the ventilation with a good planimeter that could measure the total zone between inspirations and expirations. The measurement of the planimeter then displayed a zone that divided the average depth of the respiration in centimeters on the abscissa, divided by the length of the experiment. Via a special scale, it could then be converted into liters. The average respiration multiplied by the number of respirations during the experiment and divided by the duration of the experiment in minutes gave the ventilation per minute.