German Professor Physiology Max Rubner (1854-1932), an internationally recognized metabolism researcher who was director of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, established that skeletal muscles in adults represent 43% of the total body weight and that the total musculoskeletal system including bones, heart and lungs is 61%. Most of the musculature goes to the legs (56%) and upper limbs (28%). The trunk and trunk muscles represent 16% of the total body weight. He also found that 3,200 kcal are sufficient for the daily energy requirement for a 70 kg person's physical exercise, while 2,600 calories meet the requirements for simple office work. The metabolism of a farm worker during harvesting would be 4,300 kcal. The peak daily calorie consumption figures for lumberjacks amount to about 6,000 kcal for a 70 kg person. However, long-distance cyclists can reach a peak of 11,000 kcal. Rubner assumed that the bowel system is the limiting factor for the intake of calories in the human body. A multi-day repetition of such a great effort would inevitably lead to weight loss.
The Benedict-Collins oxi calorimeter for determining the energy values of food, nutrients and excretions.
German Internist Herbert Herxheimer (1894-1985) described very precisely the psychological and physical effects of overtraining, including a decrease in the maximum oxygen intake, reduced appetite, tendency to sweat, chills, jerky reflexes, and pronounced respiratory arrhythmia with a clear preponderance. of the parasympathetic part. He also noticed constipation and painful stomach cramps. Herxheimer published his complete sports medicine knowledge in his famous book "Outlines of the Sports Medicine for Physicians and Students" from 1933. Herxheimer also described the relationship between the heart size and running. He found an increase in the transversal diameters of the heart in the following ascending order: boxing, swimming, middle distance walking, long-distance running, marathon running, and long-distance skiing. Especially large hearts worked on a larger stroke volume, which could lead to a bradycardia at rest. The blood pressure of endurance athletes would be low.
On the advice of German Professor Psychiatry Friedrich Husemann (1887-1957), German doctor Margarethe Hauschka-Stafenhagen (1896-1980) founded a 'therapy school for artistic and massage' in Bad Boll, where she taught until her death. Because of the war, she moved to Austria in 1940 and accepted the medical direction of the Gnadenwald thermal spa, offered by Professor Rudolf Hauschka (1891-1969), with whom she married afterwards.