The introduction of ergospirometry by German Professor of Medicine Hugo Wilhelm Knipping (1895-1984) was of fundamental importance for further clinical exercise diagnosis. With his device, Knipping was able to measure both respiratory volumes and respiratory gases during a dosed workload. This was also possible through the development of the ergometer from Carl Speck (1828-1916).
American cardiologists Arthur Master (1897-1973) and Gordon Oppenheimer (1900-1974) of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City introduced a standardized exercise protocol to determe the functional capacity and haemodynamic response, but only in the 1950s. the first ergospirometry device was developed that met all scientific requirements.
In 1929, American physiologists Edward Christian Schneider (1888-1954) (photo) and Gordon Clark Ring (1901-?) published the results of a twelve-week training program to improve endurance. They showed an increase of 24% in the 'crest load' of oxygen or the maximum oxygen uptake.
The Italian Association for Sports Medicine 'Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana' (FMSI) saw the light of the day in 1929. The members of the association evaluated between 1929 and 1931 2,400 boys and girls and 342 competitive athletes to help them choose the sport most appropriate for them.
Italian sports physician Giacinto Viola (1870-1943) and Italian endocrinologist Nicola Pende (1880-1970) (photo) developed a biometric evaluation schedule for athletes.
In 1929 German physiotherapist Elisabeth Dicke (1884-1952) developed the 'connective tissue massage'.