An article from an American magazine.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) seizing power in 1933 also meant a huge revolution in German Medicine. Through the Neuen Deutschen Heilkunde, the Nazis laid the foundations for anchoring their 'national socialist racial hygiene'. As a result of the infamous racial laws, renowned Jewish sportsphysicians became victims of Nazi racial fanaticism. The best known names were Doctor Ernst Jokl (1907-1997) from Breslau, Doctor Fritz Duras (1896-1965) from Freiburg and Professor Rahel Hirsch (1870-1953) from Berlin. The weight of sports medical activity shifted to military service and sport.
Emil Ketterer (1883-1959) was named 'Obergruppenführer' of the German sports doctors association. Ketterer had participated as a physician and as an athlete in the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, but was under the Nazi regime involved in the approval and promotion of euthanasia.
American physiologist David Bruce Dill (1891-1986) (photo1) worked in his Harvard Fatigue Laboratory on a study on the oxygen debt mechanism, together with Italian physiologist Rodolfo Margaria (1901-1983) and British physiologist Harold T. Edwards (1925). -2013) (photo2). It was one of the most remarkable studies on the effects of aging on athletes.
One of the test subjects was Don Lash (1912-1994), who in 1936 broke the world record of the two miles. Many of the other subjects had stopped training after leaving the university. Lash, on the other hand, continued to practice and at the age of 49 he still ran 45 minutes daily. As a result, Lash's VO2max decreased by 33%, but his untrained peers lost 43% on average. The data suggested that physical training at an early age does not guarantee a better endurance in later life, unless the physical activity is maintained.
In 1933, a new milestone was noted in Sports Medicine in the development of the exercise diagnosis. Based on lactate ratios, the phenomenon of lactate and aerobic-anaerobic threshold transition was presented as a change from the alactic to lactic acid/oxygen debt, as was shown by Italian physician Rodolfo Magaria (1901-1983), director of the Institute of Physiology at the University of Milan.
An article in the magazine 'Popular Science' reported that a treadmill in an English sports club was used as a 'one man training program'.
German Professor of Internal Medicine Herman Herxheimer (1894-1985) published his influential book 'Grundriss der Sportsmedizin für Arzte und Studierende', which was translated into English in 1936 titled 'The Principles of Medicine in Sports for Physicians and Students'.
In 'The Ohio Journal of Science' of September 1933 the article 'The Development of Methods for Determining Basal Metabolism of Mankind' was published, in which the American physiologist Thorne Martin Carpenter (1878-1971) proposed an open-circuit device with helmet to determe the basal metabolic rate.
On page 329 of the 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of London' the article 'The duration of the recovery period following strenuous muscular exercise' by Canadian physiologist Osmond Solandt (1909-1993) was published, in which he proposed a gas collection system for exercise tests.
The exhaled air was first collected in a 10 liter spirometer and then via a cooling coil pumped through the meter to a Douglas bag. In this way the air was measured before it entered the bag, that bag was only used to collect the air so that a sample could be taken. The cooling spiral served to prevent a too large rise in the measuring temperature as a result of the passage of hot exhaled air through the meter.