Wolfgang Holzer (1906-1970) of the Physiologisches Institut der Universität Wien developed the friction ergometer bike.
Instead of a rear wheel, he used a brake disc on which a steel belt ran. On one side the steel band was fixed to the bottom plate via a spring and on the other side hung a weight. Depending on the desired load, that counterweight could be changed.
American physiologist Francis Gano Benedict (1870-1957) continuously improved his devices, the image above shows a device with helmet for measuring the basal metabolism.
The ergospirometry device designed by Hugo Wilhelm Knipping (1895-1984), Professor of Medicine at the Medizinische Akademie Düsseldorf.
L. Katz and H. Landt confirmed the findings of Paul Wood (1907-1962) and Charles C. Wolferth (1887-1965) in the field of precordial derivations, but they thought that derivation 5 was better than derivation 4 for observing ST -changes. They also showed that in patients with a history of classical angina, the number of negative responses could be reduced by using the precordial leads. They tried to standardize their exercise test by allowing the subjects to lift dumbbells while they were lying on a table. Katz and Landt also discussed the pain mechanism and ischemia and related a certain irritant to the catabolism in the myocardium. In addition, they reported on the use of oxygen deficiency to trigger characteristic changes in the ST segment. They continued to produce the same changes with intravenous epinephrine.