In 1936, American Professor Physiology Arthur Steinhaus (1897-1970) published the article 'Physical Education and Recreation' in the Journal of Health, one of the first contributions on 'physical fitness'.
The year 1936 was a highlight for German sports physicians. Both the Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, as well as the Summer Olympics in Berlin and the preceding second International Congress for Sports Medicine, gave German Sports Medicine the opportunity to present itself on the international stage.
Obergruppenführer Emil Ketterer (1883-1959) stated in his opening speech:
"Every German physician must be a future sports physician. The main purpose of sports medical activity is not so much in the treatment of damage that has occurred, but rather in preventing it. In sports medical activity, prophylaxis, advice and support must be at the forefront."
But at the end of that Olympic year the Deutschen Sportärztebundes was dissolved, sport medical scientific research was suddenly no longer necessary.
In the United States, the godfather of fitness Jack Lalanne (1914-2011) opened the first modern health studio.
With his publications 'How about some muscle?' (1936), 'Forgotten objectives of physical education' (1937), 'Endurance' (1949) and 'Why not some physical fitness?' (1956) American Professor Charles McCloy (1886-1959), an exercise physiologist at State University of Iowa, pleaded for a return to the essence of physical health and physical development.
In the publication 'Über die Funktionsprüfung von Atmung und Kreislauf' (About the function testing of respiration and circulation) by German Professor of Medicine Hugo Wilhelm Knipping (1895-1984), which appeared in the German scientific journal 'Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkuloses and Spezifischen Tuberkulose-Forschung' (Contributions to the Clinic of Tuberculosis and Specific Tuberculosis Research), the above photo of the Ergograph was printed. During the examination load resistors were incrementally increased from 30 watts to sometimes 500 watts or more, the desired work dimension is to the left of the resistors and the amount of work carried out was immediately readable.The moment of inertia was increased by large metal discs. The tachometer is visible above the pendulum.
In the same publication also appeared an image of a spirograph. The lines to the patient are extended so that he can move freely. While working with the Ergograph, the patient is not connected via a mouthpiece, but via a celluloid mask. Both devices were manufactured by the German company of Albert Dargatz (1857-1941).