The use of intramedullary rods to treat bone fractures of the femur and tibia was was pioneered by German surgeon Gerhard Küntscher (1900-1972).
The studies with the Douglas Bag became ever more specialized, in the picture he is used to collect the exhaled air of soldiers while loading torpedoes.
In 1940, American cardiologist Joseph Ephraim Frank Riseman (1903-1974) of the Heywood Memorial Hospital, Gardner, Massachussets, published an excellent assessment on the use of oxygen deficiency in the evaluation of ischemia. He compared exercises with the anoxemia test and suggested that the latter was more specific because fewer negative test results occurred in patients with suspected coronary disease. First, he also described the use of continuous monitoring and he discovered that ST segment depression usually appears before the onset of pain and after the pain has subsided for a while. Riseman demonstrated the protective effects of inhalation of oxygen and described the presence of mild ST segment depression (1.0 mm or less) in normal subjects as opposed to 2.0 to 7.0 mm depression in some of his patients . Despite all this information, he concluded that the exercise test has little practical value because of the poor distinction between normal and abnormal subjects.