In the 'New Scientist' of November 29, 1956 the article 'Integrating Motor Pneumotachograph (IMP)' appeared.
"... it is necessary to measure their physical energy exchanges and this can be done with a modern device, called IMP (integrating motor pneumotachograph). It consists of a light air pump and a flow meter housed in a plastic box attached to the one side is connected to a face-mounted mask and on the other side to a steel collecting unit which is packaged on its back in a bag.The IMP collects for a certain period of time the total volume of air exhaled by the wearer from this exhaled air, representative samples are taken automatically.The whole device is so light, so well equipped and so comfortable that it can be easily worn during heavy exertion or peaceful sleep.The IMP was designed by Mr. HS Wolff of the Human Physiology Division of the National Institute for Medical Research to offer physiologists the opportunity to study human energy exchanges under different conditions ranging from canal swimming to bathing a baby. The device has attachments through which the wearer can drink through a tube or blow on a whistle; although the IMP cannot yet measure human energy exchanges while talking, smoking, shaving or eating. The device was manufactured by J. Langham Thompson. "
From the Arbeitsgruppe für Sportmedizin, which was formed in 1953, the Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin der GDR originated, of which German Professor Arno Arnold (1897-1963) was the first chairman.
The Swedish couple, Prof. Physiology Per Olof Åstrand (1922-2015) and Prof. Physiology Irma Rhyming (1927-2016), documented that maximum oxygen uptake or aerobic capacity can be predicted by the heartbeat in submaximal training.