History of sports medicine - 1957


The historical publication of Finnish Professor Martti J. Karvonen (1918-2009) who introduced the 'percentage of maximum heart rate reserve' for calculating or expressing training intensity, was one of the first studies to assess the effects of two different training intensities during exercise compared to cardio-respiratory reactions:

Target Heart Rate = ((max HR - resting HR) ×% Intensity) + resting HR example