The Peking University Institute of Sports Medicine was established in China. This first Chinese institute covered the full spectrum of sports medicine and integrated clinical care, training, research and medical consultation for the national sports teams. It laid the foundations for the development of sports medicine in China and grew into a top hospital for clinical practice and research.
Sports medicine research expanded enormously in Germany.
At the Freien Universität Berlin German sports physician Harald Mellerowicz (1919-1996) started a full research laboratory where all possible tests could be done.
Ergometry performed with the Dargatz-Wirbelstrom-Ergometer and the Lauckner-Ergometer. Gas metabolism was also investigated, but the heart rate was still determined with a 1m20 long stethoscope, which was wrapped around the chest with a rubber belt. The time of 10 beats was stopped by hand.
In 1963 Mellerowicz started his private research center Institut für Leistungsmedizin, präventive und rehabilitive Sportmedizin.
Henry L. Taylor (1912-1983) and Elsworth R. Buskirk (1926-2010) of the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene & Exercise of the University of Minnesota published two innovative articles on the criteria to be achieved for maximum oxygen consumption.
During the third Pan-American congress of sports physicians in Chicago, Wildor Hollmann (1925-) reported for the first time on the physiological and clinical significance of the spiroergometric determination of the aerobic-anaerobic turning point for a first assessment of the performance of sick and healthy individuals. He named the maximum workload that was almost completely aerobically covered as the PoW and the indicated heart rate at this point as 'pulse endurance limit'. The determination of the parameter was derived from the coordinate system with a tangent to the minute ventilation curve as well as to the arterial lactate curve. The results of patients and athletes were first published in 1959.