The "Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness" became one of the official publications of the American College for Sports Medicine.
In Great Britain, British sports physician John G P Williams (1932-1995) was a pioneer in sports medicine. In 1962 he published the reference work 'Sports Medicine', but soon other masterpieces followed such as 'Medical aspects of sport and physical fitness' (1965), the second edition of 'SportsMedicine' (1976), 'Color atlas of injury in sport' (1980) and 'Diagnostic picture tests in injury in sport' (1988).
American cardiologist and physiologist Robert A. Bruce (1916-2004) of the University of Washington, described his "multi-stage exercise test" for treadmills, later known as the "Bruce Protocol".
"You never buy a second-hand car without having driven it to test how the engine performs during the ride," said Bruce, "the same is true for evaluating heart function."
Bruce is called the father of the exercise test. The Bruce protocol is the most commonly used protocol for clinical exercise testing on treadmills. It was developed for heart patients and consists of a speed increase every three minutes together with an increase of the inclination of the treadmill. Oxygen uptake expressed in METS was derived from the testing of "normal" subjects and recorded for each test minute in the Bruce protocol. In the modified version of the Bruce protocol, the speed remains constant during the first three phases, starting at 2.7 km / h and a slope of 0%. After the third phase, both the speed and the inclination increase every three minutes.
The modern total hip prosthesis was invented by British Orthopedic Surgeon Sir John Charnley (1922-1982). He discovered that joint surfaces can be replaced by implants that are cemented on the bone. His design consisted of a stainless steel femoral trunk and one-piece head and a polyethylene acetabulum component, both of which were attached to the bone using PMMA (acrylic) bone cement.
In the United States, Augustus Thorndike (1896-1986) retired, he was head of surgery at Harvard University Health Services from 1931 to 1962 and a renowned specialist in sports medicine. He wrote the leading books 'Athletic Injuries' and 'Manual of Bandaging, Strapping and Splinting' and demanded the presence of a physician at every contact sport competition. He introduced the rule that it is up to the physician to decide whether or not an injured athlete should play. He was also the first physician to design improved protective equipment for football players and the first to demand helmets for ice hockey players.