The Greek physician Herophilos of Chalcedon (335-280 BC) was the first to use a water clock to count the human pulse, making subtle analyzes of rhythm and heartbeat.
Using musical theory he built up a rhythmical pulse lore that lasted for about fifteen centuries.
Because of his numerous discoveries the Greek physician Erasistratus (310-250 BC) is regarded as the 'father of physiology'. Although his views on bodily functions and causes of illness were clearly different from those of the Indian surgeon Sushruta and the Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC), like them he prescribed, moderate body exercises, gymnastic activities, diet, swimming and limited medication intake.
The current treadmill likely arises from the Roman Tread Mill crane. For lifting heavy weights, the Romans replaced the winch in their cranes with a treadmill. The men walked in the wheel and because the treadmill had a larger diameter, they were able to lift double the weight with half of the crew.
The scientific theory on the therapeutic effect of health exercises, massage and exercise in water was devised by Asclepiades of Bithynia (124-40 BC), the first Greek physician in Rome.
In Roman times, amputations were performed and primitive prostheses were developed.
The Roman general and politician Marcus Agrippa Vipsanius (63 BC-12 BC), a friend and son-in-law of Emperor Caesar Augustus (63 BC-14 AC), built the Baths of Agrippa, the first large imperial bathhouse in the city and also the bathhouse of the Porticus of Vipsania. In 25 BC. he started the construction of a laconicum, a hot sweat bath, which was part of the complex of the Pantheon. Especially for this, he also had built the Aqua Virgo aqueduct, which provided the thermal baths with running water. In the years after, the thermal baths were completed. In the beginning it was a private bathhouse for Agrippa, but after his death in 12 BC. he left it to the Roman population, so that the citizens could use it for free.
Important art treasures were collected around the baths. The most important was Apoxyomenos, a sculpture of a young athlete who removes the sweat from his arm with a scraper. The statue was made by the famous Greek sculptor Lysippus of Sycion (4th century BC) and stood at the entrance of the complex. In the baths, the athletes were also massaged.